Water Supply and Sources
This is part of a poster that was distributed in Jerusalem in order to instruct the public in the effective use of water rations. According to this poster, each person received 10 litres of water a day. The poster comprises a diagram showing how to use water: for example, part of the water ration should be allocated to washing fruits and vegetables, the surplus water should then be collected in a bucket for washing the floor, and, finally, any remaining water should be used to flush the toilet.
Possible Primary Sources
Posters of water conservation programmes, Photographs of water sources and water supply systems.
Ein Avdat, Naharayim, the Eshkol Reservoir, the Dead Sea, Hezekiah’s Tunnel
The water supply in Israel has always been limited, since rain falls only in the winter and largely in the north of the country. Due to this shortage of water, Israel’s population is largely dependent on water conservation programmes, sophisticated irrigation, and water engineering. Much of Israel’s natural water supply is transferred from the Sea of Galilee in the north to the Negev desert in the south through channels, pipes, and tunnels.
Water shortages have been serious issues at different times throughout history. For example, in early 1948, the Arab forces severed the water supply line to Jewish Jerusalem and water rationing was introduced of two gallons a day per person. Due to this limited water supply, the public was informed on ways to conserve water.
This is a photograph taken in 1880 by the pioneer photographer Charlier Bezies of the city of Tiberius on the shores of the Kinneret, the Sea of Galilee.